Glossary of polio eradication terms
acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)
Disabling condition occurring in 1 percent of all polio cases in which limbs affected by polio become limp and disfigured. AFP is also a symptom of other maladies; therefore, stool samples must be collected in a timely manner and sent to a laboratory to confirm or rule out polio as a cause. During surveillance , volunteers survey communities to discover if anyone is developing the condition to determine the success of polio vaccine penetration in those communities.
Global verification that polio has been eradicated; certification is Rotary's top priority. Through surveillance , health officials determine whether a region can be certified as being polio-free after at least three consecutive years of no transmission of poliovirus.
club PolioPlus committee
Appointed by club president to promote and support polio eradication activities at the club level. Focus of committee will vary depending on the presence or absence of polio in the club’s locality as well as the district’s and nation’s stage in the polio eradication process.
The series of storage and distribution activities and related equipment (refrigerators, insulated boxes, etc.) that maintains the oral polio vaccine at the appropriate temperature.
district PolioPlus subcommittee
Responsible for supporting Rotary's commitment to polio eradication and for encouraging participation in PolioPlus activities by all Rotarians in the district. Focus of subcommittee will vary depending on the presence or absence of polio in the district and the district’s and nation’s stage in the polio eradication process.
global laboratory network
Consists of 145 accredited laboratories that follow standardized procedures for detecting polioviruses from stool samples collected from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Testing also aims to distinguish polio as a cause of AFP from diseases other than poliovirus. See also surveillance
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Partnership of Rotary International , the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control that supports global immunization activities; formed in 1988 when the 169 member states of the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to eradicate polio globally. Rotary’s role in the initiative is the PolioPlus program and related activities.
The spread of poliovirus from polio-endemic countries into previously polio-free countries.
International PolioPlus Committee
RI committee that recommends policies, strategies, budgets, grant requests to the Trustees of The Rotary Foundation and reports on polio eradication grant progress; reviews the overall operations of the PolioPlus program and provides recommendations to the Trustees on any matter associated with its goal; and provides direction and coordination to all elements of PolioPlus. Members are listed in the Official Directory .
monovalent oral polio vaccine
Oral polio vaccine that focuses on only one of the three types of poliovirus. Because of its higher rate of efficacy, the monovalent oral polio vaccine is used strategically to respond to outbreaks of a single type of polio or in immunization campaigns where only one type of polio is known to circulate.
Implemented in a country when the final pockets of poliovirus transmission have been identified with certification-standard surveillance. The campaigns involve door-to-door immunization in high-risk districts where the virus is known or suspected to still be circulating.
National Immunization Day (NID)
Complements and supplements routine immunization activities. An NID is a massive, coordinated campaign that aims to interrupt the circulation of poliovirus by administering the oral vaccine to every child in the highest risk age group (normally under the age of five). Polio-endemic countries usually organize multiple rounds of NIDs annually for at least three years. See also mop-up campaign .
national advocacy adviser
Rotarian appointed in a potential donor country to support the work of the Polio Eradication Advocacy Task Force . Listed in the Official Directory.
national PolioPlus committee
Assists The Rotary Foundation in achieving its objectives in polio eradication in the committee’s country. Committee chairs are listed in the Official Directory.
National Immunization Day .
oral polio vaccine (OPV)
Vaccine developed by Dr. Albert Sabin that is administered by mouth and protects against all three types of poliovirus. OPV is the vaccine of choice for polio eradication because it is relatively inexpensive and can be administered easily by trained volunteers. In addition, those who have been immunized with this vaccine shed the vaccine-virus for a short period of time thereby creating a “herd immunity” within the local population.
Short for poliomyelitis , the crippling disease caused by the poliovirus. See also acute flaccid paralysis ; polio endemic
Term used to describe a region or country with naturally circulating poliovirus and where polio transmission has never been interrupted. There are three polio-endemic countries: Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Polio Eradication Advocacy Task Force
Mobilizes additional governmental financial and political resources for global eradication activities and coordinates with the other major polio eradication partners to ensure that the messages to donor governments and polio-affected governments are accurate and consistent. Members are listed in the Official Directory.
Rotary Foundation program, established in 1985, through which Rotary has led the private sector in the global effort to eradicate polio. In addition to volunteering in communities around the world to eradicate polio, Rotarians will have contributed over US$850 million by the time the world is certified polio-free. The "plus" in PolioPlus refers, among other things, to the global polio eradication legacy that can be applied to future health initiatives. See also Global Polio Eradication Initiative .
Rotary’s efforts to work with national governments and multinational organizations to encourage them to commit the political and financial support required to eradicate polio. Advocacy is carried out by a small but dedicated group of Rotary members including the Polio Eradication Advocacy Task Force , national advocacy advisers , and national PolioPlus committee members.
Committees at all levels of Rotary that promote Rotary’s highest priority, global polio eradication. See also club PolioPlus committee; national PolioPlus committee; regional PolioPlus committee; International PolioPlus Committee.
regional PolioPlus committee
Represents Rotary on regional immunization and eradication coordinating committees, coordinates assigned aspects of national PolioPlus committees, recommend priorities for PolioPlus grants in the region, or serves as a multinational PolioPlus committee whenever separate national committees are not feasible. Members are listed in the Official Directory.
The virus that causes poliomyelitis , which is passed through poor or careless hygiene. Learn more about the disease . Also referred to as wild poliovirus.
Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge
Fundraising initiative of Rotary International in response to grants totaling US$355 million received from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support polio eradication activities.
Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge Committee
Group that ensures The Rotary Foundation of Rotary International fulfills Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge.
Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge zone coordinator
Serves as the communication link between regional Rotary Foundation coordinators, Major Gift advisers, Annual Programs Fund strategic advisers, district leadership, and Rotary Foundation staff for purposes of fundraising for Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge. Challenge zone coordinators are responsible for fundraising at the district and club level and for soliciting major gifts for Rotary’s US$200 Million Challenge in assigned territories.
supplemental immunization activities
Targeted large- and small-scale campaigns to improve vaccine coverage in developing countries. SIAs include National Immunization Days and Subnational Immunization Days.
The critical monitoring of the incidence and transmission of polio at local, national, regional, and global levels that involves rapid collection and assessment of stool samples from children suspected to have polio by local health workers and pediatricians. See also certification ; acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) .
Disabling condition occurring in 1 percent of all polio cases in which limbs affected by polio become limp and disfigured. AFP is also a symptom of other maladies; therefore, stool samples must be collected in a timely manner and sent to a laboratory to confirm or rule out polio as a cause. During surveillance, volunteers survey communities to discover if anyone is developing the condition to determine the success of polio vaccine penetration in those communities.